Event API

The Event API provides a basic event system to allow your code to react to signals sent by the OS or other programs/libraries.

For example, this can be used to capture keys pressed, react if an external screen is attached or removed, or handle incoming network messages.

Overview

There are two main use cases for the event API:

  • Have your program react on events while running in the background (driver mode).
  • Have your program handle events while being the foreground program executed (primary mode).

In driver mode your program needs to register callbacks for events (using event.listen()) then it should exit to return execution to the primary program (usually the shell). In primary mode your program does not need to register events, it can handle them directly using event.pull().

Note: While it is technically possible to do both at the same time it is not recommended to do so. To make sure that events are received by all registered functions, they are consumed only after all functions have been called. So if you register your handler and pull at the same time, you would receive events twice.

Functions

  • event.listen(event: string, callback: function): boolean
    Register a new event listener that should be called for events with the specified name.
    event - name of the signal to listen to.
    callback - the function to call if this signal is received. The function will receive the event name it was registered for as first parameter, then all remaining parameters as defined by the signal that caused the event.
    Returns: true if the event was successfully registered, false if this function was already registered for this event type.
  • event.ignore(event: string, callback: function): boolean
    Unregister a previously registered event listener.
    event - name of the signal to unregister.
    callback - the function that was used to register for this event.
    Returns: true if the event was successfully unregistered, false if this function was not registered for this event type.
    Note: An event listeners may return false to unregister themselves, which is equivalent to calling event.ignore and passing the listener with the event name it was registered for.
  • event.timer(interval: number, callback: function[, times: number]): number
    Starts a new timer that will be called after the time specified in interval.
    interval - time in seconds between each invocation of the callback function. Can be a fraction like 0.05.
    callback - the function to call.
    times - how many times the function will be called. If omitted the function will be called once. Pass math.huge for infinite repeat.
    Returns: a timer ID that can be used to cancel the timer at any time.
    Note: the timer resolution can vary. If the computer is idle and enters sleep mode, it will only be woken in a game tick, so the time the callback is called may be up to 0.05 seconds off.
    Important: timers are driven by the event.pull function. If you always pull signals directly from os.pullSignal and never call event.pull, timers will not work!
  • event.cancel(timerId: number): boolean
    Cancels a timer previously created with event.timer.
    timerId - a timer ID as returned by event.timer.
    Returns: true if the timer was stopped, false if there was no timer with the specified ID.
  • event.pull([timeout: number], [name: string], ...): string, ...
    Pulls and returns the next available event from the queue, or waits until one becomes available.
    timeout - if passed the function will wait for a new event for this many seconds at maximum then returns nil if no event was queued during that time.
    name - an event pattern that will act as a filter. If given then only events that match this pattern will be returned. Can be nil in which case the event names will not be filtered. See string.match on how to use patterns.
    - any number of parameters in the same order as defined by the signal that is expected. Those arguments will act as filters for the additional arguments returned by the signal. Direct equality is used to determine if the argument is equal to the given filter. Can be nil in which case this particular argument will not be filtered.
    Filter example:
    The click signal (when a player clicks on a tier two or three screen) has the signature screenX: number, screenY: number, playerName: string
    To only pull clicks by player “Steve” you'd do:
    local _, x, y = event.pull("click", nil, nil, "Steve")
  • event.pullFiltered([timeout: number], [filter: function]): string, ... (Since 1.5.9) Pulls and returns the next available event from the queue, or waits until one becomes available but allows filtering by specifying filter function. timeout - if passed the function will wait for a new event for this many seconds at maximum then returns nil if no event was queued during that time.
    filter - if passed the function will use it as a filtering function of events. Allows for advanced filtering.

    Example:

snippet.lua
local allowedPlayers = {"Kubuxu", "Sangar", "Magik6k", "Vexatos"}
local function filter(name, ...)
  if name ~= "key_up" and name ~= "key_down" and name ~= "click" then
    return false
  end
  local nick
  if name == "click" then
    nick = select(3, ...)
  else
    nick = select(4, ...)
  end
  for _, allowed in ipairs(allowedPlayers) do
    if nick == allowed then
      return true
    end
  end
  return false
end
 
local e = {event.pullFiltered(filter)}  -- We are pulling key_up, key_down and click events for unlimited amount of time. The filter will ensure that only evets caused by players in allowedPlayers are pulled.
  • event.pullMultiple(...): ... (Since 1.5.9) As its arguments pullMutliple accepts multiple event names to be pulled, allowing basic filtering of multiple events at once.
  • event.shouldSoftInterrupt(): boolean (Since 1.5.9) This function is called by event.pull after each signal was processed, to check whether it should abort early. If this returns true, event.pull will return an interrupted event if the filtering allows for that.
    Per default, this returns true if the combination Ctrl + C is pressed.
    This should usually not be called by your programs.
  • event.shouldInterrupt(): boolean
    This function is called by event.pull after each signal was processed, to check whether it should abort early. If this returns true, event.pull will throw an interrupted error.
    Per default, this returns true if the combination Ctrl + Alt + C is pressed.
    This should usually not be called by your programs, except if you need to do some cleanup if the program is manually interrupted.
  • event.onError(message: any)
    Global event callback error handler. If an event listener throws an error, we handle it in this function to avoid it bubbling into unrelated code (that only triggered the execution by calling event.pull). Per default, this logs errors into a file on the temporary file system.
    You can replace this function with your own if you want to handle event errors in a different way.

Interrupts

Interrupts are a type of messaging intended to close or stop a process. In OpenOS the event.pull*() methods generate the two types of interrupts.

They are especially useful when event.pull*() is called without time limit and without filter. In some cases this means that event.pull*() could be waiting indefinitely.

  • Soft interrupts are generated by pressing Ctrl+C and is only effective if event.pull*() allows for returning this type of event ("interrupted"). It also returns one additional result which is time spent in event.pull*().
  • Hard interrupts are generated by pressing Ctrl-Alt-C. It forcibly exits the event.pull*() method by throwing a "interrupted" error.

Basic event example

Typically user scripts care about one or two events, and don't care to handle the rest. It is good to handle “interrupted” for soft interrupts.

snippet.lua
while true do
  local id, _, x, y = event.pullMultiple("touch", "interrupted")
  if id == "interrupted" then
    print("soft interrupt, closing")
    break
  elseif id == "touch" then
    print("user clicked", x, y)
  end
end

General purpose event handler

Here is a clever solution for providing a general purpose event handler. In this example the primary functionality uses the event id returned by event.pull() as a key for a table of callbacks, using metamethods to handle undefined events. Note that event.pull puts the program on hold until there is an event available.

snippet.lua
local event = require "event" -- load event table and store the pointer to it in event
 
local char_space = string.byte(" ") -- numerical representation of the space char
local running = true -- state variable so the loop can terminate
 
function unknownEvent()
  -- do nothing if the event wasn't relevant
end
 
-- table that holds all event handlers
-- in case no match can be found returns the dummy function unknownEvent
local myEventHandlers = setmetatable({}, { __index = function() return unknownEvent end })
 
-- Example key-handler that simply sets running to false if the user hits space
function myEventHandlers.key_up(adress, char, code, playerName)
  if (char == char_space) then
    running = false
  end
end
 
-- The main event handler as function to separate eventID from the remaining arguments
function handleEvent(eventID, ...)
  if (eventID) then -- can be nil if no event was pulled for some time
    myEventHandlers[eventID](...) -- call the appropriate event handler with all remaining arguments
  end
end
 
-- main event loop which processes all events, or sleeps if there is nothing to do
while running do
  handleEvent(event.pull()) -- sleeps until an event is available, then process it
end

If you work in driver mode, you need to register the events instead, by either registering a global event handler like the one in the example above, or by registering each individual handler on its own. If you would write the example above to work in the background, the while running do loop would be replaced like this:

snippet.lua
event.listen("key_up", handleEvent) -- register handleEvent to be called on key_up then end the program

It would also be possible to register myEventHandlers.key_up directly, in which case it would receive an additional parameter (the event name) as the first parameter.

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